How Did The French And Indian War Lead To The American Revolution?
In five phases, the French and Indian war led the 13 colonies of North America to the American Revolution.
Those five phases are:
- In the first phase, the French & Indian war ruined the British economy.
- In the second phase, to collect revenue and regain their economy, the British government started imposing taxation acts on the 13 colonies of North America.
- In the third phase, colonists started resisting those laws via organizing widespread protests and violence.
- In the fourth phase, the British authority tried eliminating the protests and violence through imposing punitive laws.
- Finally, in the fifth phase, as retaliation to those punitive laws, colonists turned their actions to the American Revolution.
Now, let’s try to understand these five points via some short explanations.
1. French & Indian War Ruined British Economy
French & Indian War also known as the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) was one of the major armed conflicts between the Empire of Great Britain and the Empire of France, fought in the mid of the 18th century.
Though Great Britain somehow managed to gain victory against France; but the event completely ruined their economy.
They had to spend around £70,000,000 from the English treasury and doubled their national debt to £140,000,000. Even, only for the naval combats, they had to spend 45 million British pounds.
Aftermath, once the war came to an end, it became necessary for the British government to regain its revenue and heal the broken spine of the economy.
[Did You Know? France Spend Around 1.3 Billion Livres During The Seven Years’ War. The War Also Devastated Their Economy Too, Which Later Fueled In The French Revolution]
2. British Government Imposed Taxation Acts On The 13 Colonies To Restore Economy
Once the economy faced a huge disaster, the British government needed to restore it by gaining revenue.
In 1764, after the war, for the first time, the English Parliament passed and imposed a taxation act on the 13 colonies, named the ‘Sugar Act’ and then later, one by one, they passed:
- The Stamp Act (1765)
- Townshend Acts (1767)
- Tea Act (1773)
[Did You Know? The British Parliament Rationalized That They Had To Involve In The French & Indian War To Protect The People of The 13 Colonies. In This Case, They Said, It Is Colonists’ Duty To Pay Money For The Losses of The British Economy. However, Their Argument Was Not True]
3. American Colonists Started Protesting Against Taxation Acts
In response to the taxation acts, from 1765, protest and violence widely spread throughout the 13 colonies.
The city of Boston (Massachusetts province) transformed into the center of these unrests.
[Did You Know? Patriots Like George Washington And Benjamin Franklin Condemned The Boston Tea Party Event. Even, Washington Called The Participants ‘Insane’ And Benjamin Franklin Proposed The Authority That He Would Pay All The Compensations For The Losses]
4. British Parliament Passed Punitive Acts To Punish Colonists
The Boston tea party event provoked the British Parliament to punish American colonists by imposing punitive laws on them.
In 1774, the parliament passed five punitive laws, which colonists named ‘Intolerable Acts’ (Although for the British authority, they were Coercive Acts).
Those acts included:
- Boston Port Act
- Administrative of Justice Act
- Massachusetts Government Act
- Quebec Act
- Quartering Act
5. Colonists Turned Their Actions To The American Revolution
To the 5 punitive Intolerable Acts, American colonists again retaliate via the First & Second Continental Congress.
During these two Congresses, colonists prepared the roadmap of the American Revolution.
On 19th April 1775, the battles of Lexington and Concord broke out as the first military confrontation of the American Revolution.
Finally, on June 17th, 1775, the battle of Bunker Hill crossed all the limits of the crisis and also closed the door for a proper diplomatic solution between Great Britain and the 13 colonies.