What Caused The Tension Between The Soviet Union And The US After The War?
So, you want to know about what caused the tension between the Soviet Union and the US after World War II (the year 1945).
Ok, here we are going to discuss this complete answer within a few points.
Genuinely, the condition of tension between these two superpowers popularly known as the Cold War.
The main causes of that situation are something like this:
- Different between political ideologies – Communism vs Democracy
- Secrecy of nuclear weapon
- Soviet spies in the USA
- Cancellation of American loans
- Race of destructive weapons
- Economic causes
- Misunderstandings over peace treaties
- Formation of military alliances
Difference Between Political Ideologies – Communism Vs Democracy
The first reason for that tension between the US and the Soviet Union was the ideological difference.
So, what was it?
Actually, on one side Soviet Russia was a communist nation, where there was no democracy existed (Only one political party ruling system); but on the other hand, the United States of America was a fully democratic country.
Due to this ideological difference, these two big countries never believed each other.
Russian Communist party always blamed the US that they were trying to spare democratic ideologies in their country; same way the US also blamed Russia as an expansionist totalitarian power.
They also neglected Communist rule as the rule of the Demon.
The USA’s Secrecy of Nuclear Weapon From Soviet Union
During World War 2, the USA and Soviet Union together fought from allied forces. By the very end of the war, America attacked Japan with atomic bombs.
But the interesting fact was the US never informed the Soviet Union about they had Nuclear weapons.
However, except for Russia other allied nations like Great Britain and French were well informed about it.
Other hand, Russia was thinking that they would force Japan to surrender by attacking them; but even before the Russian invasion, the US attacked Japan with Nuclear weapons and forced them to surrender.
It was so difficult for Russian leaders to accept this thing with ease.
These disputable actions from western countries made the Soviet Union more cautious.
They considered it a major betrayal to them.
Soviet Spies In America
This was another reason what caused the tension between the Soviet Union and the US after the war.
After the end of the Second World War, many Soviet spies started working in the USA with the direction of Moscow.
They mainly worked there to steal information about the atomic bomb, American security issues, and spare communist ideologies.
Soviet spies also sent a number of facts to Moscow by collecting samples of uranium from America. Resulted on 29th August 1949, Moscow tested its first Atom bomb.
The US went very angry due to these actions of the Soviet Union and hence they warned them about it.
Cancellation of Loans For The Soviet Union Given By America
Because of World War II, the economy of the entire world completely destroyed.
At that time, the US started paying loans for the financial aid of its allied nations.
Due to Soviet Russia fought battles from allied power side, initial days they also got some benefits from the United States.
But because of tensions rising between these two nations; suddenly the US stopped all the plans for providing loans to them.
Their action caused a heavy economic crisis in Moscow. The Soviet Union deeply offended by this task of America.
They also blamed them that they were trying to destroy Russia’s economy and make them weaker.
Race of Destructive Weapons – Especially Nuclear Weapons
Most of the dangerous weapons in the modern world were manufactured in the Cold War era.
In 1949, the Soviet Union tested its first nuclear bomb. This incident leads America and other western countries to be more alert.
Because they realized, it would be a huge danger for them in the upcoming days. Especially the US came into full action to be one step ahead of than Soviets.
Hence, they started manufacturing more and more destructive weapons.
The race continued till 1991.
According to research, the United States and the Soviet Union had built so many nuclear weapons at that time that the entire earth could be destroyed by more than 200 times.
Economic Causes – Communism Vs Capitalism
Another reason for the tension between the Soviet Union and America was economic opposition.
All the Western nations under the leadership of America supported the capitalist order in their economies.
In this system, the nation does not have control over the economy of the country.
But on the other side, the Soviet Union and its other associate countries supported communist ideology in their economies, where the government of the country takes control of its economy.
After the war, many countries of Asia and the African continent became independent.
These two superpowers tried to influence the economy of these newly independent countries with their ideals.
On one hand, where the US and other Western countries tried to influence them with Capitalist ideology; similarly, the Soviet Union and other Communists nations also tried to influence them with communist economic ideology.
This was also a major cause of tension.
Misunderstanding Over Peace Treaties
After the war, many disputes also arose between the two superpowers over the prestige of peace treaties in many countries of Eastern, Central, and Western Europe.
These countries were mainly Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Yugoslavia, etc.
In particular, in countries like Bulgaria and Romania, when the US and other capitalist countries refused to accept the reputed Communist governments by showing some unrealistic reasons, the Soviet Union openly opposed it.
On the other hand, it was difficult for the US to accept the direct intervention of the Soviet Union in these countries.
Even in many times Soviet authority directly intervened with their military power in these nations to abolish uprisings against communism.
Formation of Military Alliances
On April 4th, 1949 under the leadership of the US many countries of Europe formed a military alliance named with ‘NATO’.
At that time NATO’s members were Belgium, UK, France, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, and a few others.
The Soviet Union and other Communist nations considered this military alliance as a major threat to their existence and national security.
As a result, they also signed a pact of the collective military alliance in 1955 on the 14th.
This was the ‘Warsaw pact’, signed in the capital Poland.
A total of eight members first joined this military agreement.
They were Albania, East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and the Soviet Union.
These two powerful military agreements also fueled up raising tensions between these two superpowers.